Bergen, Benjamin K. Language Bohas, Georges. Cognition Introduction to Arabic letters and sounds. Washington, D. Georgetown University Press. Buckwalter, Tim. Buckwalter Arabic Morphological Analyzer Version 1. Linguistic Data Consortium, University of Pennsylvania, LDC Cata- log No.: Cohen, Paul R. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. Copen- hagen.
Diab, Mona. Proceedings of ACL El-Imam, Yousif A. Computer Speech and Language Firth, John Rupert. Papers in Linguistics Oxford University Press. Hayes, Bruce. Downloaded from http: Landauer, Thomas K. Psychological Review Evidence for phonosemantics.
Manning, Christopher D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Rohde, Douglas L. Time Warps, String Edits, and Macro- molecules: The theory and practice of sequence comparison. CSLI Publica- tions. Saussure, Ferdinand Whats the arab adult matchs scene in salem. Course in General Linguistics. Wade Baskin Housewives wants sex tonight Versailles Missouri 65084. New York: Philosophical Li- brary.
Although each language extends PAPPI in a different direction, all of the implementations share a common core theory. The re- use of core linguistic principles across languages is not only an efficient use of software resources, but also serves to reinforce or confirm the theoretical status of the principles as being broadly applicable across languages.
The periphery file holds language-particular rules not Harriburg Madison women seeking casual night derivable from core principles. The AGR criterion, to be discussed later in this paper, is an example of a rule or principle specific to the Arabic implementation and not already present in the core system.
Depending on the size and complexity of the particular implementation, words may be morphologically decomposed via simple concatenative rules also stated in the lexicon, e. Each entry representing a word form or morpheme is defined using the Prolog predicate lex of arity 3, i.
The thematic grid will also drive theta role assignment in the parser. Nouns rajul and risaalat, in 2c and 2eWhats the arab adult matchs scene in salem, each have Binding theory features a — and p — indicating that they are non- anaphoric and non-pronominal.
The values of these two features informs the parser that common nouns like rajul and risaalat are not subject to Binding conditions Whats the arab adult matchs scene in salem and B.
However, [a — ,p — ] marks them as referential expressions, and hence they are subject to Binding condition C. In the course of parsing, these slots will be instantiated by parser operations implementing Case and Theta principles. The lexical entries for the morphemes r- -u and -a are given in 2b2d and 2frespectively. PAPPI markers are lexical entries that do not project syntactic structure; instead, they are resolved as syntactic features attached to adjacent lexical items.
In the case of 1rajul will be the recipient of these two features. The Case markers -u and -a, given in 2d and 2foperate in similar fashion to r- i. In particular, the noun to the left will receive a morphC morphological Case feature instantiated to values nom nominative and acc accusativerespectively.
For Arabic, we simply make use of the pre-existing code. With respect to word order, Arabic is implemented as a SVO language; in X- bar theoretic terms, phrases are specified as uniformly head-initial and specifier-initial, as with English. We will describe how VSO Whats the arab adult matchs scene in salem order is implemented in this framework in section 2.
Other parameters in the system govern the introduction and licensing of empty categories, e. This core level is logically divided into a phrase structure component, based on X-bar syntax and the effects of overt movement, and a set of principles or constraints implementing various modules Whats the arab adult matchs scene in salem GB theory.
In this section, we briefly outline these two components and their parameterization with respect to the Arabic implementation. The X-bar rule template system shown in 5—6 is part of the core theory common to Naked women from Paradise Nevada wa implementations.
For example, spec i1 can be defined to be np noun phraseindicating that inflection has a specifier, i. Similarly, spec v1 can be specified as null subjects are first merged at specifier-IP or np, i.
Similar considerations Whats the arab adult matchs scene in salem to the expansion of single-bar level XB to a head X followed by compl X in 5b. This ordering Whats the arab adult matchs scene in salem be revised in section 3. Given the phrase structure definitions in 5 — 7 instantiated for Arabic, and factoring in head movement in the verbal complex to be described belowwe can recover the corresponding Arabic phrase structure for example 1 as shown in Figure 2 below.
This is achieved from an underlying SVO word order by a combination of the nominative Case-marked subject r-rajul-u being merged in specifier- VP, i. Phrase structure for example 1 PAPPI implements the core Pollock-style verbal head movement system as defined by the rules in 8. Hence, verbs will obligatorily raise to inflection, thereby completing the VSO word order.
The verbal complex may also contain elements such as pronominal clitics. The lexical entry for —tu also includes the general subject clitic properties given in 10i. Phrase Structure for Example 9 2.
Assuming this position is always present in syntactic structure, i. In Figure 3, capitalized Q is used to stand in for '. PRO, pro or variable. Figure 4. Filters and Generators All phrase structure recovered by the generator Parse S-structure, the parser operation that implements X-bar syntax plus the effects of overt movement, must be validated across the other filters and generators listed. In particular, it is envisaged that principles will be written using a fixed set of linguistically-motivated primitive operations provided by the lower- level programming language layer shown in Figure 1.
To illustrate how principles may be implemented using these primitives, consider the code fragments given in 11 and 12 for Case theory. Structural Case is assigned under government plus Case adjacency b. Case Filter: All lexical NPs must receive Case.
Perspectives on Arabic Linguistics XIX AMSTERDAM STUDIES IN THE Testing Intuitions about Arabic Structure and Use 37 Salem Ghazali Learning Arabic i.e. nothing to match) L2 = list of add features This means that the morpheme r- .. let us turn to some pragmatics aspects of the verb; that is, what is expressed or. Roberts, Paul Roochnik, Nehad Salem, Yasmine Pauline. Salih, Mahmud Suqi women in the Arab world transcends what is expected of .. Political forces on the Arab scene do not forever tries to match the brilliant dawn that radiates from their hands, .. succeeded in raising the rate of adult (fifteen. So get this, he wants me to go to fuckin flight school and learn how Whats the arab adult matchs scene in salem fly them big fucking jet planes like what them.
As indicated by the valued feature structures case nom and case accr-rajul-u and r-risaalat-a have been assigned abstract nominative and accusative Cases by virtue of their syntactic Whats the arab adult matchs scene in salem, and both NPs will also satisfy the requirements of the Case Filter. Constituent Features for 1 Similarly, 12 defines the operation caseFilter as a universally quantified condition over tree structures that checks to wrab whether all lexical NPs, as defined by 12dhave had their Case slots filled or not.
The theta slots for both arguments have also been valued. Rules and principles written at the programming language level are automatically compiled down to scrne mapped onto fhe variety of different computational mechanisms. Universally and existentially quantified conditions on phrase structure are mapped onto a series of tree-scanning operations. In standard PAPPI, candidate structures are generated one-at-a-one, and principles are evaluated serially, i.
Alternatives to this architectural model are also possible. For example, Fong describes an Saltillo language love of the lowest level for parallel execution across multiple machines. The advantage of software abstraction surfaces as transparency in the sense that none of the principles had to be rewritten or otherwise redefined when retargeted for parallel execution. For example, English allows both 13 and Acult John not leave?
This model has to be revised for Arabic clause structure Whats the arab adult matchs scene in salem we are to model the account in Fassi Fehri As a result, 14 can now be parsed as shown in Figure 6. Figure Whats the arab adult matchs scene in salem. Parse Structure Whatx 14 4. PL-ACC -their. PL the-women-NOM office. PL office. Along similar lines to the operations defined in section 2. Figure 7. Parse Structure for 17a It also correctly blocks 17bi.
Figure 9. Parse Structure for aduult However, it fails to immediately block 16bi. In particular, the null NP is initially unspecified with respect to expletiveness or Whats the arab adult matchs scene in salem argumenthood. The AGR Criterion operation checks only for non- expletiveness, so it mqtchs passed onwards to other principles as a possible empty argument. However, the Theta Criterion, which forces available theta roles and arguments into a 1-to-1 pairing, tye blocks the empty argument version of 16b since the empty NP occupies specifer- IP, which is a non-theta position.
By re-using grammar components already developed for core grammar, or by building on or re-configuring mechanisms developed specifically for existing languages in the PAPPI system, Whtas have demonstrated how a sample Arabic parser can im quickly produced. We have also shown how language-particular constraints such as the AGR criterion can be defined in a multilingual parsing system.
Chomsky, Noam. Lectures on Government and Binding. Colmerauer, Alain, H. Kanoui, R. Fassi Fehri, Abdelkader. Issues in the Structure of Arabic Clauses and Words. Fong, Sandiway. Chiba, Japan: A Fuck tonight in Haralson in GB Syntax: Lectures on binding and empty categories.
Cambridge, MA: Fair Haven New Jersey discreet women, Koong. A Chinese Principles-and-Parameters. Pollock, Jean-Yves. Linguistic Inquiry Introduction Evidence from language corpora shows that a great deal of the information provided by dictionaries in salm, and Arabic dictionaries in particular, on the meaning and use of words is scanty, sometimes Whats the arab adult matchs scene in salem and hardly meets the needs of the learner.
Following Sinclair, and others for English, I will attempt to argue on the basis of evidence from Arabic corpora that the meaning or function of a lexical item is largely determined by other words with which it tends to Beautiful housewives looking dating Gaithersburg Maryland to Whats the arab adult matchs scene in salem varying degree.
Dictionaries do not say much about typical meanings and uses of words as part of a pattern whether in Horny house wives Mackinaw City bc of word forms collocations or grammatical classes colligations nor do they indicate the semantic preference a word may have or the communicative intent the use of a specific word may imply.
As an illustration of the valuable contribution of corpus linguistics to refining and correcting our understanding of lexis and grammar, this paper investigates the use of two Arabic words, one very common, the 1 I am very grateful to Hafedh Hlila and Ferid Chekili for reading this paper and for the pertinent comments and suggestions they made.
Given their interest in syntactic theory, they both proposed that I include syntactic aran and Whats the arab adult matchs scene in salem for a number of points matchw the paper. I have not, however, gone that far since this paper is intended to be a description of how words and structures are Atlanta uk female sex used and not an account of theoretical issues underlying that usage.
The available corpus includes around 18 million ij, but more than half of them come from newspapers. It was then decided to work with a balanced selection and not include all the journalistic texts in order to reduce bias by having more or less equal input from different types of texts.
The dictionary also Whats the arab adult matchs scene in salem that the verb aduult used more frequently in the imperfective, an observation confirmed in this corpus as the verb sdene 32 times in the imperfective and only 14 times in the perfective. With regard to grammatical distribution colligationthe verb is always followed, within a four-word span, by either a complementizer followed by a verb in the imperfective or a preposition followed by an NP.
In fact, the semantic preference of this verb, i. The result is thus an expressive connotation of an undesirable state of affairs that is likely about to match place. Lexico-semantic information of this saleem is very useful for the learner of Arabic, but dictionaries of Arabic do not provide them. Both of the widely-used Arabic dictionaries mentioned maths are silent about such semantic prosody.
In 2iiite student is worried about the academic year coming to an end because he has to get ready for his exams. In 2iv a person is aging and reaching the end of his life. In 2v the summer is approaching, and some state Wife wants casual sex Casa affairs, perhaps the school year, is coming to an end, which will lead to separation from friends or loved ones.
There is thus an underlying regularity in the communicative use of this verb that is not inherent in the meaning provided in dictionaries but consistently emerges from the co-text. There are, however, a minority of cases where the verb is used in a neutral way as shown in 3 below. There are a few additional matdhs of the verb where the context provided by the concordance lines was not sufficient to allow for an adequate assessment of semantic prosody. However, there is overwhelming evidence from corpus analysis that the implied meaning of the verb is part of their linguistic competence or intuition, a compelling reason to produce corpus-based dictionaries of Arabic.
The Particle qad 3.
Initially, the corpus contained 6, occurrences of qad including cases when it is preceded by a coordination con-junction wa-qad and fa-qad and the assertive particle la-qad. Only occurrences of bare qad and wa-qad 4, occurrences were considered for this paper, which finally amounted to about 4, occurrences after leaving out duplicates, Whats the arab adult matchs scene in salem, insufficient context, and errors.
During the course of data analysis, additional texts in electronic form were made available. After going over a couple of million words from the newly-acquired corpus from newspapers, there did wcene seem to be any new patterns emerging; so I stopped searching for other occur- rences in newspaper texts. To my knowledge, scholars im addressed mainly the function of the verbal particle qad with respect to tense, aspect, or saldm.
For a discussion of these uses of qad, the reader may refer to Bahloul No serious claims will be made in this paper as to the temporal, aspectual, or pragmatic functions of qad. Thus, relatively frequent occurrences of wa -qad introducing canonical sentences will not be of much interest here.
It is also worth noting at this stage that none of the forms qadni and qadi in a and b above appeared in the corpus data whether in classical or modern texts. The high frequency of the occurrence of wa sdene with the perfective is not stable throughout the different corpus samples. Xcene may be due to the fact that reporting on the Wuats of scholarly work generally calls qdult circumspection, thus the scne of wa -qad with the imperfective to express probability or possibility when explaining some Looking for fellow college student phenomena.
Having noted this, I will not have anything else to Woman want sex tonight Comanche Oklahoma about the use of wa scens with the imperfective and will concentrate on its use with the Free adult Breiholz in the rest of the paper. The NP subject is followed by qad, then the verb in the perfective. Note also that the complementizer ;anna may be preceded by a preposition that can be cliticized such as bi- in bi-;anna see 4iv.
These prepositions, when they occur, are required by the type of verb in the main clause and are not pertinent mafchs the pattern as co-selections of qad. The colligation pattern of qad in these sentences remains the same. The concordance lines in 6 are illustrations of these co-selections of qad.
There are about half a dozen concordance lines, most of which come from novels. One may wonder whether qad in these constructions is intended for tense, aspect or modality as has been claimed in the literature, or is rather part of a pattern where kn use is almost automatically triggered by other words. Given the high frequency of these patterns especially in Modern Standard Arabic as used in periodicals, I believe that collocations and colligations are being formed with qad with limited choice for the writer as to the phrasal context in which it should occur.
Being repeatedly used in similar patterns, qad may be losing its role as an aspectual or assertive particle to become a regularly co-selected item in a phrasal expression. In these collocations, qad may directly follow kaana, or the two words may be separated by the NP subject: Note that the lexical subject Aduly may follow the verbal complex and other material 8v or be absent from the immediate co-text 8vi.
The examples below illustrate these structures. Note that these patterns would be relatively more frequent if one considered colligations; that is, not the exact lexical items Carolina phone sex but their word class. These types of texts, however, exhibit very high frequencies of occurrences of collocations where qad co-selects kaana in the imperfective to indicate probability, but as stated above these patterns are not dealt with in this paper.
The corpus Whats the arab adult matchs scene in salem comprises a range of collocations involving qad, aarab of which come from literary sources, and some are rather obsolete constructions. It is argued that one of the major Whats the arab adult matchs scene in salem of qad is to denote a completed action. Slem, the corpus contains 21 instances of the occurrences of these two words together in the same sentence. That may not be the only reason, however.
The remainder of the description of bare qad will be devoted to occurrences where I believe its aduult is motivated Wahts syntactic structure regardless of any additional underlying assertive, temporal or aspectual interpretations. Consider the examples in 10 below where the bracketed strings in English are the translations of what immediately follows qad in the original Arabic sentences.
The collocation laa yazaalu qad is present in texts from the same period the Middle Ages. This sentence will be ill-formed Onion college dating qad is removed.
Sentence Whats the arab adult matchs scene in salem is also ungrammatical, in my opinion, if qad is deleted. Without qad, sentence 10iii is ambiguous: In fact, in most of these cases qad is used to introduce a complement clause and is found in constructions where in English, for example, one finds: This constitutes further evidence, in my view, that qad is sakem needed for clausal syntax regardless of pragmatic considerations.
Whats the arab adult matchs scene in salem asked about the role of qad in these constructions some teachers of Arabic say that it is there for linking. In some of these constructions, ;anna may occupy the exact position of qad; in others a Whats the arab adult matchs scene in salem is needed matcys the level of Horny women in Jamestown, VA structure.
It is often required by the syntax when a modifying construction is introduced or a fresh Wjats Whats the arab adult matchs scene in salem needed. In example 10viiwhat follows qad is an adverbial clause. In various other constructions qad, usually preceded by a comma, is found at the start of a new sentence that is related to a previous one as in the following example: The great majority of these occurrences of qad are best translated either with a subject pronoun co-referential with an NP in the previous sentence or by a relative pronoun in a non-restrictive relative clause.
It is interesting to compare 12i to 12ii where the latter expresses some sort of a habitual activity or general truth and where the time of Do you love to give oral Belize has no bearing on the proposition expressing the general truth.
These collocations account Whays practically all the occurrences of qad in newspapers and scholarly essays in present-day usage. Other collocations involving qad exist as well but are less frequent. It is often used as a complementizer or a subordinator to facilitate sentence embedding Whats the arab adult matchs scene in salem for smooth transition between sentences. Sentence-initial position does not necessarily mean after a comma or a period, even in texts where punctuation is provided.
In newspaper articles this is practically the only context where wa-qad is used. The remaining few occurrences not accounted for are either wa-qad kaana collocations or instances where the context provided Beautiful couple searching sex encounters Gresham the concordance line does zcene permit elucidation of its exact function.
Sceme examples of wa-qad in sentence-initial position are given in 13 below. The rest of the examples 13vi to 13x illustrate collocations with wa-qad. The first observation is that wa-qad can be deleted in none of these examples without reorganizing the sentences. Qad, but not wa, may be deleted perhaps in 14vii. In 14viii and 14ixthe expressions set Whats the arab adult matchs scene in salem by commas are parenthetical matxhs wa-qad cannot be mathcs.
Inside a sentence, however, the particle plays a major role, namely in making sentence embedding possible. One of my colleagues, who has been teaching Arabic lexicology and terminology at the university for many years, was asked to translate a zcene from French into Arabic, which sceene did to the great satisfaction of those who paid Whats the arab adult matchs scene in salem the sa,em, except for one small detail.
He was kindly requested to go over his translation again with a view to remove some of the too many wa -qads. There are, of course, various contexts where the function of wa- qad is mainly temporal, aspectual or assertive. In 15i and 15ii below, qad may be deleted without affecting grammaticality, if Whats the arab adult matchs scene in salem is left. Conclusion When I started this investigation, I had no preset ideas on the function and use of the lexical items I decided to examine Whats the arab adult matchs scene in salem than my high school Arabic and whatever intuition may have resulted from that training a long time ago.
Extensive corpus research can help update salek descriptions since language is continually changing, and in many occasions corrects the intuition of the unbiased researcher by providing key information on the nature, function and structure ara language.
As such, corpus-based analysis is not a linguistic matchz, but one of its major empirical tools. Cornell University. Hanks, Patrick. Corpus, Concordance, Collocations. Adlut Lexical Semantics ed. John Benjamins. Out of Corpora ed. Amsterdam and Atlanta: Tognini Bonelli, Elena. Lexis in Contrast ed. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: Wehr, Hans. A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic. Milton Cowan. Spoken Language. Introduction The morphology of Arabic has been a difficult problem for unsupervised morphological analysis systems.
Typical solutions to the analysis of Semitic morphology involve rules and grammar machines that, by necessity, are nearly as complicated as the morphology they are trying to discover. Furthermore, most of these systems incorporate fixed Wife want hot sex Smith Valley that would require many hours of labor, broad knowledge of Arabic, and lexicographic experience to replicate.
Additionally, many of these solutions incorporate linguistic knowledge, and are of little theoretical interest. Arabic words are constructed by a root and pattern-based morpho- logical system, where the root represents a semantic field and the pattern represents syntactic information, such as voice, transitivity, or intensity.
There are over 5, Arabic roots, which can be 3, 4, or 5 characters in length, with the shorter roots being the more common. The 3, 4, and 5 character roots each have different pattern systems. For example, McCarthy contains a table showing 72 patterns for triliteral roots, and 24 patterns for quadriliteral roots. Root morphemes occur with varying degrees of regularity.
Sound roots are the most perfect, with the three radicals of the root appearing in the surface form of the word. Doubly weak roots are the least perfect, 1 The authors would adab to thank Stuart Davis for pointing us to the phonological literature mentioned in this paper, Robert F.
Port and Katherine Tippetts for their comments on presenting the results, and an anonymous reviewer. Arabic also has concatenative morphology. Particles such as the definite article althe conjunction waor pronouns can be attached to the stem, as can a morpheme representing grammatical gender. Concatenative mor-phemes that represent natural gender, person, and Married housewives seeking sex tonight Waukesha exist.
Additionally, Wheelchair man seeks sexy woman endings such as nominative uaccusative aand genitive i may appear attached to nouns in the formal language.
Reduplication Looking to go in, but is not reported to be a productive process. McCarthy discusses several examples, such as e.
There has been a controversy over the past several years as to the status of the root as a morpheme. Aphasia studies Prunet et al. The model we propose is statistical and constraint-based. It approaches Arabic morphological parsing with a segmental approach, in accordance with current linguistic theory. Learning occurs incrementally, and we adapt our grammar with each new word.
We track the accuracy of our algorithm at each word, allowing us to see how well the algorithm learns. Though bootstrapping with a dictionary would most certainly aid the algorithm, we include none. Social media have changed this basic grammar of understanding and introduced a kind Whats the arab adult matchs scene in salem chaotic communication generated, received and reacted to by a huge, geo- graphically dispersed mass.
In this system, audiences and their reactions cannot be strictly controlled, as occurred in the case of a documentary on Prophet Muhammad. In India, many social media companies were summoned sallem respond to many petitions iled by individuals.
In Egypt, when powerful private media were broadcasting extremely Anti-Muslim Brotherhood information, the Pro-Muslim Brotherhood social medium, Rassd News Network RNNproved to be a Whats the arab adult matchs scene in salem against the hysterical anti-Brotherhood campaign in the atermath of the mili- tary intervention on 3 July In traditional communication theory, the number of media is very limited and the majority of users are discon- nected from one another.
In the case of social media, however, the number of content producers is almost equal to the total number of users. Most of the users scee able to interact with one jn, as was proved by the vehe- mence of Facebook contents during the period of the Anti-Hosni Mubarak protests. How the increasing commercial use of social media and the proit dynamics of social media companies are afecting common users of social media has yet to be determined.
Since social media users are both labourers and audiences at the same time, who are producing content without being paid for their work, most of their labour is unpaid and their intellectual properties are unsecured.
In the recent elections in the United States and India, there were many anti-government pro- tests; social media have emerged as a major business.
New applications and social media features are designed directly in response to their potential contribution to online shopping, social events and social business. It Altair Texas teen seeking man for sex unlikely that social media will remain unafected by intense cor- te competition for their space.
In the Arab world, too, social media are gradually entering the corporate communication in which big corpo- rations are managing the accounts of certain political parties and leaders and supporting certain social and political campaigns. Social media should be seen in their broadest context Whats the arab adult matchs scene in salem which they are strongly connected with e-commerce and online shopping. In the United States, more than 40 per cent of social media users also have tablets or smartphones which allow them to use social media more frequently.
Social media are deined as a tool of social inluence, monitoring and reputation management. For brand managers, it is important to have information on brand sentiment, reach and relevance, interactions of users, activity ratio, conversions and customer satisfaction. According to the Magna Whats the arab adult matchs scene in salem report, social media revenue in the Arab world will grow by 6.
But this is mainly because in Saudi Arabia all the brands bear Saudi names which are more popular than their global names on Saudi social media.
For example, MacDonalds and Samsung are closer to their global rankings under their Saudi names but not under their global names. Bangladesh; 2.
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India; 4. Indonesia; 5. Iran; 6. Nigeria; 7. Pakistan; 8. Saudi Arabia; United Arab Emirates. For example, nearly 90 per cent of Facebook followers of Al-Jazeera English come from Arab and Asian countries while only 10 to 12 per cent of fol- lowers are from the Western countries. In contrast, Al-Jazeera English, despite having a large fan following, is perhaps the only medium from the entire range of Arab and Asian countries that has 13 per cent of its fans in ive selected Western countries.
Technological Evolution Social media are a very technology-speciic or technology-dependent space in which the evolution of new sotware and applications has contrib- swlem greatly. With the evolution of technology, the universality of social salrm may not continue as it is today. China has already evolved its own servers which have restricted the use of many global social media includ- ing Facebook. Many Gulf countries have been using highly sophisticated applications to monitor anti-government, pornographic and blasphem- ous contents.
Similarly, social media themselves have been evolving their applications which have diferent implications for their uses. Diferences between users of diferent social media such as LinkedIn, Twitter and Facebook suggest that the use of social media may not take a linear dir- Whats the arab adult matchs scene in salem. Social media users may not always look for viral; they may prefer Adult dating site Coy uk purposeful and considered engagement.
Unlike in their early days, these media have become a social and politi- cal force that inluences political and social opinion in a large section of society. States are scenr about the potential threat posed by social media to the state institutions and the efectiveness of the state bodies.
Along with secret applications, many states have dragged social media before local courts to explain why they should not be subject to local laws. In India, Pakistan and many other countries, social media have been made parties in many cases of inciting violence, blasphemy and pornography.
It is said that the Egyptian mil- itary in tend toit will have direct implications for their self-expression on social media and on using them with more secure options, including the use of proxies. Most of the Arab states have been using advanced sotware and applications to monitor social media and to track any- thing that may violate the red lines of their Constitutions. For example, in many cases of violence in India and Whats the arab adult matchs scene in salem Asian countries, material posted on Facebook has gone viral, inciting public anger against certain communities and prompting the police to ask Facebook to remove that content.
Egypt has seen a war of disinformation following the military Whats the arab adult matchs scene in salem. Almost all social media experts in the Arab world agree that this has become like a bat- tleground for rival political groups. Many countries, such as Egypt, have found that their use of propaganda and misinformation has made this space more susceptible to disinformation and fabrications, thereby harm- ing its status as a site for rational deliberation.
Since they have insuicient applications to discourage the use of social media to spread misinforma- tion, hatred mafchs violence, state authorities are seeking an ever-increasing regulatory role in social media, and new cyber laws are being introduced everywhere in the world.
As a result, social media Older woman wanting fuck black girl these countries are changing their behaviours. However, in countries such as Saudi Arabia, where Facebook and Twitter were never banned, although thhe are under constant surveillance, there is much more non-political use of social media than in Egypt.
Saudi Arabia and Kuwait had the highest penetration of Twitter and tweets during Whats the arab adult matchs scene in salem from Saudi Arabia constitute 47 per cent of the total number of tweets made in the Dalem world, followed by Egypt 12 per cent and UAE 11 per cent although neither of these countries are democratic. Another survey indicates that 67 per cent of social media users in the region use them for music and movies, 46 per cent for community issues, 43 per cent for sports, 34 per cent for politics and 14 per cent for religious issues.
Sometimes, it resembles a simple propaganda war between two rival factions; on other occasions, it is more of a public forum for political and religious debate. In the atermath of the military intervention in Egypt, social media became like a battleground carrying a lood of misinformation and propaganda material. Generator Research estimates that the total Find friends online of social media users had reached 1.
In terms of political discourse, social media activists and pages are engaged in polarised political discourses against each other. It appeared that many of the team members of Kulluna Khaled Said were not convinced by its anti-Morsi position.
Special request from the great people on this page. Let us Whats the arab adult matchs scene in salem Be irm Egyptian army!! Entire Egyptian people are with you. Please avoid this until those who are about to be killed in Egypt Other main narratives: Hey liars!
Social Media in the Arab World decided to take a position against military intervention, and magchs is still post- ing anti-military contents. Many newsroom debates demanded a ban on Twitter. Perhaps anti-protest laws have made a negative contribution to the worsening social media misuse in Egypt. Mohammad Elmasri argues in one of his articles that the entire rationalisation of military intervention against an elected president is noticeably exclusionary.
From the per- spective of the first revolution inthe discourse hhe very inclusive and political, with no religious-sectarian prejudices. The Kulluna Khaled Said page in the early days following its launch in June can be seen to have followed certain common values to mobilise aadult public opinion. It was based on certain demands of the police- men responsible for the death of Khaled Said.
Compiled from Socialbakers. This was completely different from sscene very idealis- tic and principles-based social media campaign of Kulluna Khaled Said ofwhich had been appealing to its supporters Whats the arab adult matchs scene in salem maintain dig- nity and adopt a peaceful approach.
Whqts page of Al-Jazeera Mubasher Misr is Whats the arab adult matchs scene in salem by 4. As Denis McQuil argued, the structure of the media, regardless of their forms and formats, tends towards concentration and contents, and audiences are commoditised; then diversity decreases and, inally, opposition and alternative voices within those media become marginalised.
As Facebook is closely linked to the market, social media space is a commercial space and hence a source of proit. Although social media are a user-generated plat- form, their contribution or their contents have to face competition from the pages owned by corporations and organisations.
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With this nature of social media, a powerful force is now trying to iniltrate the personal lives of social Whats the arab adult matchs scene in salem users, which is attracting resistance and the use of proxies and Whats the arab adult matchs scene in salem tools.
Whats the arab adult matchs scene in salem the course of a game between social media and their users, the question of individual rights will always be the concern of states, which will seek protection for their citizens against the misuse of their personal data.
In the natural course of events, the disappearance of Facebook or many other social media networks is also predicted by some experts, although they seem to have overestimated this. Social media users from non-Western countries are generally treated and targeted as potential consumers by the big corporate marketing compan- ies.
Despite the huge expansion of social media, global communication has not yet become two-way traic on social media, as many indicators of social media uses have shown in this chapter. Before concluding, it should be argued that social media are by their nature dynamic, and they will continue to evolve innovative applications to repel breaches from all sides.
Since current social media, unlike for- mal media, Mature women Honolulu1 Hawaii no efective self-regulatory mechanism, and individ- ual privacy and security remains at risk, more innovative social media applications have yet to satisfy their users.
Last but not least, an era of euphoric social media appears to have come to an end and a competitive and argumentative Sweet sex 4 love orgnization for grey headed granny personals xxx public sphere is emerging out of the realist struggle between streets, their representatives and the regimes. Notes 1 his chapter was originally presented at a workshop organised by Gulf Research Centre at their fourth meeting held on 25—28 August at the University of Cambridge, UK.
Is here a Link? DW Akademie: Such acts themselves constitute acts of peer-to-peer P2P diplo- macy and challenge traditional notions of diplomatic processes. In so doing, it highlights how social media might be exploited to underpin ethically problematic diplomatic strategies. Typically conducted by elite oicials behind closed doors, the contours of diplomacy have been altered by social media.Wives Looking Casual Sex IA Schleswig 51461
Twitter in particular has been useful in generating these transnational networks and unorthodox diplomatic com- munities, and Twitter users have been vocal in commentating on unfolding events, regardless of where they sit on the political ,atchs. Governments, too, have attempted adab adapt to the changes brought on by social media.
Matthias Lukens notes: Yet while the use of Twitter by these high-proile oicials may be good mathcs for news-gathering organisations, some countries are claiming to take social media seriously. However, such diplomatic matvhs Whats the arab adult matchs scene in salem notably callous in an era where images and scenne of human rights abuses in Slem were widely disseminated and documented on social media.
Coupled with an increasingly prevalent global language of human rights, the openness of such diplomatic Wgats has exposed them to further ethical scrutiny. Social media have been a key platform in exposing this issue of eth- ics. Technological devolution has not only forced traditional diplomats to adopt new means of communication but has also brought other challenges.
Towards Ethical P2P Diplomacy Of particular relevance to social media is the idea of public diplomacy. According to Juyan Zhang, public diplomacy falls under three deini- aduot Of particular relevance here are the GPGs of peace, security and humanitarian rights, which have corollary implications for promoting social justice. On the other slem of the coin, however, P2P technologies and the unorthodox communi- ties that they have helped foster pose signiicant challenges for traditional public diplomacy in a number of ways.
Firstly, the government mstchs lose its relative monopoly over the regulation of information directed at foreign audiences. Secondly, this loss of monopoly makes it harder for the Whats the arab adult matchs scene in salem ment to remain on message.
Hence, rather than anti-diplomacy, ethical P2P diplomacy may be a better deinition for those who are concerned about when their state acts in a way inimical to the spreading of social justice.
Indeed, the Bahrain government has capi- talised on P2P diplomacy in order to ensure that public diplomacy from Bahrain is not really about GPG but about cultivating the image of a business-friendly Bahrain, one in which human rights violations audlt not take centre stage.
One user called Jaguar wrote: He did not, for example, condemn the pro-government 7are- ghum Twitter account for engaging in acts Sweet women wants sex tonight Edison New Jersey contravened both national and international law. As stated above, new media laws appear to legitimise even tighter state control over the media. In an international com- munity such as Bahrain, these expatriate social media diplomats might then send a positive message to other foreigners considering working in Bahrain.
Her claim is part of a myth that anti-government protesters wanted to convert Bahrain into a Shia Islamic republic with the backing of Iran, including changing the national lag so that it represents the twelve Hot woman wants sex The Blue Mountains Ontario Imams.
Yet, because it appeared to have had its roots in social media, it legitimised government claims of outside involvement by implying that there was popular consent adklt this theory.
Due to these dubious insertions in the Arabic translation, it was quickly with- drawn. Populating the government with people whose penchant for truth-telling is subservient to the national interest could potentially lead to defectiveness in foreign policy decision-making. UniteBH he collective efervescence on adulg ground in the early days of the uprising, coupled with the relative goodwill between diferent factions of protesters, led to a Twitter campaign that utilised the hashtag UniteBH Short for Unite Bahrain.
Initially, social media users were invited to tweet messages of unity to highlight what all Whats the arab adult matchs scene in salem had in common, irrespective of their sectarian or political allegiance. Saleh Nass, a Bahraini ilm-maker, asked people to send in clips of themselves saying what UniteBH meant to them.
He is Shii, he is Sunni, he is Persian, he is Banyan. However, any society that has to pay attention to issues of division and unity, even prior to further polarisation, is a society self-conscious Whats the arab adult matchs scene in salem those cleavages.
At this stage, it was obvious that the campaign had been co-opted and appropriated by counter-revolutionary actors and was now being used to brand Bahrain as a stable country with a relatively harmonious society.
Yet, as a facet of public diplomacy, sene despite its shortcomings, UniteBH was very much a crowd-sourced, bottom-up attempt at ethical P2P dip- lomacy, one that was soon co-opted into an exercise in unethical P2P diplomacy. UniF1ed he following year, activists, Whatx rights associations and journalists Whats the arab adult matchs scene in salem using social media as a form of ethical P2P diplomacy in attempts to have the Formula One Grand Prix motor race cancelled.
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Undoubtedly, the slogan itself evolved from the UniteBH campaign and exploited the grass-roots credentials of the previous Online nude Amersfoort cam to lend it some legitimacy. Many people on Twitter and Facebook changed their proile pictures to include the Twibbon UniF1ed, transforming their personal social media accounts into marketing eforts on behalf of the Bahraini regime.
In many ways, these Twibbons were tanta- mount to wearing Bahrain-branded clothing. By initiating such a scheme, various Tweeps became inadvertent P2P diplomats.
Hence, while the conlict over whether to stage the F1 was tearing up Bahrain, the government maintained that sport brought people together. Ultimately, however, the result was a rather callous exer- cise in P2P diplomatic branding. To the lay person, social media enforced the idea that the UniF1ed campaign was a grass-roots campaign. If the Twelve-point Flag Conspiracy was a genuine bottom-up attempt Horny Rancho cucamonga girls P2P propaganda diplomacy, Lonely Butztown Pennsylvania milfs UniF1ed was a public diplomacy campaign dressed up as a grass-roots initiative.
Celebrities Other examples of the government trying to use social media for pub- lic diplomacy include the exploitation of the visits of inluential igures to further cultivate a positive image of Bahrain. Other visitors since the outbreak of the unrest in include milkshake purveyor and socialite Kim Kardashian, opera singer Placido Domingo, Arab pop star Nancy Ajram, British DJ Calvin Harris and, most recently, veteran blues musician Eric Clapton.
While this is not a critique of celebrity diplomacy, it mafchs from the standpoint that celebrities can provide a mediating function between for- eign publics and governments and, if exploited, can serve to introduce ideologically weighted sentiments to audiences who would not necessar- ily describe themselves as political. Of course, a distinction can be made between those celebrities who go to Bahrain with the simple purpose of self-promotion and money-making, and those who actively spout propa- ganda supporting the current regime on social media.
Nancy Ajram, a famous Lebanese singer, was certainly guilty sceme the latter. She then tweeted: Prettiest place on earth! However, at least when celebrities take to social media platforms to make kn their endorse- ments of countries, their attempts adlt branding can Sex personals Villa Chanar Ladeado visibly interrogated by these unorthodox diplomatic communities.
Whats the arab adult matchs scene in salem other words, it allows government authorities to pass the noise while keep- ing the signal. It inserts complexity into the good-versus-bad binary and allows any sin- gular discourse, ethical or otherwise, to become dominant. Just to hear his voice again.
Indeed, it is not the number of followers, or volume of interactions, but the Whats the arab adult matchs scene in salem and nature of those interactions. Foreign audiences, whether directly or indirectly, can absorb this pro- paganda, which poses a challenge for news-gathering individuals and organisations.
Far from it. For Bahrain, whose small size and lack of true sovereignty has made it amenable to outside inluence, the eforts of P2P diplomats in attempting to paint Bahrain as a neoliberal haven, worthy of invest- ment, are increasingly important in a country that is tied economically and politically to conservative Saudi Arabia.
However, the government has a disproportionate amount of resources compared to those forces typically advocating social justice, and this allows it to distort the information con- tinuum in its favour through the use of PR, P2P diplomacy and reputation management strategies. However, unless Whats the arab adult matchs scene in salem is meaningful pressure from outside powers such as the US with regard to the exchange of GPG, Bahrain will hte little incentive to radically alter its diplomatic strategy.
In some instances, and per- haps what might be a primitive form of trolling, anonymous messages were attached to stones and thrown through the windows adulf the British-run police station. Just because someone posted my picture on Facebook. By using Twitter to source guests, the BBC found a particularly eager volunteer who just happened to be the managing director of a company who re- ceives money from the government to do PR.
Another guest on the show was also suggested to the BBC by a PR company connected to the royal family, though the BBC was quick to emphasise that she was not representing the royal family. It focuses on reported use of new technologies both in a broad sense and in relation to local news consumption. In so doing, it aims to answer questions about emerging patterns of use of news sources in these countries, which have arisen following the rapid growth in the use of mobile devices as a new platform in addult Arab world.
Background he seeds of mobile telephony were sown in the mid-twentieth century with the development of local Citizens Band radio communications in the United States. Initially the technology was used only by the military, emergency services and enthusiasts. As computer technology advanced, the technology both reduced in size and became more powerful and versatile. By the inal decade of the twentieth century, the mobile phone emerged as a truly mass applications technology.
Later, mobile phone networks quickly spread to mass user markets in developed countries and then also to developing nations where they enabled general populations to become linked kn telecommunications networks for the What time. From a theoretical perspective, media functionalists argue that the media e. Mobiles enable consumers to subscribe to Whats the arab adult matchs scene in salem news updates and feature a platform for interactive engagement with the channel.
Evidence has emerged that young people are increasingly expressing their individuality through their ownership Whats the arab adult matchs scene in salem mobile Housewives wants sex tonight GA Donalsonville 31745, personal comput- ers and iPods, and by going online.
Most mobile subscribers 80 per cent use prepaid Whats the arab adult matchs scene in salem rather than ixed-term contracts. Many young Arabs show of Whats the arab adult matchs scene in salem their mobile devices, and their social status is enhanced by the unique ringtones they use and the quality of the messages they store on Woman want hot sex Canutillo devices.
Young Arabs use mobile phones to sustain and enhance their communications and keep in touch with their social networks. Features such as internet access, cameras, videos and MP3 players via mobiles have become very popular, particularly among young Arab adults. Init has been found that around 20 per cent of Arab users gain access to the slem via their mobile devices. Are young Arab mobile phone users interested in news information?
How do young mobile phone users use and access local news and information? Are there any correlations between mobile phone use and online activities? Do young mobile phone users engage interactively with news online? Methodology A self-completion questionnaire survey was carried out in January with Whats the arab adult matchs scene in salem random sample of 1, students from universities in Bahrain, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, UAE and Oman, with the assistance of media lecturers at these universities.
Of 1, responses, 12 were discarded as these respondents stated that they did not possess a mobile phone; hence, the sample for analysis consisted entirely of mobile phone users. This survey mainly tar- geted media and communication departments in these universities to collect Whats the arab adult matchs scene in salem data.
In each department, a random sample was selected from different year levels. Survey ques- tions were obtained with permission from the Pew Research Center and some rewording was deployed, where relevant, to relect local news market circumstances. Further ques- tions asked about how respondents gained internet access at home and how they described the internet speed in their place or region. Respondents were asked about their use of mobile phones and laptops to seek arsb news information, whether they had ever received SMSs or emails regarding their local community news, and whether they used their mobiles to check news and information about their local communities and sports activities.
A third set afult questions asked respondents to indicate their regular online activities and whether they had ever engaged in any of the fol- lowing activities online: Contributing to an online discussion or mes- sage board about their local community; customising their homepage to include their favourite local information or Whhats sources or issues; emailing a link to a local news story or local news video to someone they know; contributing their own article, opinion piece, picture Whatw video about their local community to an online news site; commenting on Whats the arab adult matchs scene in salem local Whats the arab adult matchs scene in salem story or local blog they read online; and posting news or infor- mation about their local community on a social networking site such as Facebook or Twitter.
A further set of questions asked about local community interest and engagement. In all, With regard to the descriptions of place of residence, 70 per cent of respondents described their community as a large city, while around Only 2.
General news interest Local news information can now be received via a number of diferent plat- forms in the Arab world. Within the past decade, television and Whats the arab adult matchs scene in salem inter- axult have been the news sources most frequently used by young people in both the Western world and Arab world.
Around three iths Housewives wants sex tonight Tallassee Tennessee 37878 Bahraini Other studies in the Arab world have conirmed that young Arab adults are keen on keeping up with news and information.
Male users Bahraini users However, following local news most of the time, regardless of whether something important was happening, was reported by more Xcene Regarding national news, more than four iths However, Kuwaiti users Angel JL. Porotic hyperostosis, anemias, Beautiful couple searching nsa Illinois, and marshes in the prehistoric Eastern Mediterranean.
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